Arborjet Revolutionary Plant Health Solutions

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Bronze Birch Borer

The Bronze Birch Borer is a wood boring beetle, common across the northern half of the United States, which attacks all birch species. The adult is a copper/bronze colored slender beetle. The larvae,
which does the damage, are unseen, feeding on the vascular tissue under the bark. The Bronze Birch Borer typically attacks trees which are already stressed or in decline. A birch infested with Bronze Birch Borer will start showing dieback in the crown, increasing in severity as the infestation continues, often leading to death of the tree. In later stages of infestation, the trunk will show D-shaped, rust-stained exit holes and may also have swollen extrusions under the bark where the tree tried to grow over larval galleries.

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Symptoms

Bronze Birch Borer larvae live under the bark and feed on the nutrient and water-conducting vascular tissues. Larvae create meandering galleries through the phloem, vascular cambium and etch the xylem, effectively girdling the tree. Dieback of the canopy is a symptom of Bronze Birch Borer larval infestation; more than one half of the branches may die back as infestation progresses. The tree responds to canopy dieback by sprouting new (epicormic) branches below the disrupted tissues. The bark will split over dead vascular tissues, and trees may die within only two years of the onset of symptoms.

A: Bronze Birch Borer adult beetle
B: Bronze Birch Borer larva
Photo A courtesy of: Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo B courtesy of: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Independent studies strongly recommend that treatments be applied early, before extensive disruption occurs to the vascular tissues. Arborjet recommends treatment when Bronze Birch Borer is detected in your area, but trees still appear healthy for best outcomes (dieback symptoms on infested trees should be <40%). Treat birch with either TREE-äge® Insecticide (emamectin benzoate) using the TREE I.V. system for high volume dosages or IMA-jet (imidacloprid) or the QUIK-jet™ micro-injector for lower volume applications. The comparatively large vasculature in birch trees will readily move IMA-jet upward into the canopy. TREE-äge is more viscous and will take slightly longer to inject but will provide a longer residual effect. TREE-äge and IMA-jet will eliminate the Bronze Birch Borer larvae inside the tree.

See the TREE-äge and IMA-jet labels for dosage rate based on tree size.

When to Treat

Treat birch if Bronze Birch Borer is reported in your area. Do not wait for visible dieback in the canopy, as there is a significant delay between disruption to the vascular tissues and expression of symptoms in the canopy. Delaying Bronze Birch Borer treatment could result in canopy dieback or tree loss. Applications should be made in the spring, about 30 days prior to expected adult emergence; however, treatment may be applied during the growing season (May – September) to protect trees. Uptake of formulation is fastest when trees are actively transpiring, after they have developed a full canopy. Bronze Birch Borer treatment in the spring will prevent the adult beetles from feeding and laying eggs in the tree, whereas summer treatment will kill the larval stage of Bronze Birch Borer feeding under the bark. Make summer treatment applications in the morning when temperatures are moderate. If soil is dry, water trees prior to treatment. Injection in the fall (after leaves color but before they fall) can protect the tree for the following season.

Trees need to be closely monitored for symptoms of Bronze Birch Borer as infestation builds in your area. In general, applications are not made more than once a year. TREE-äge treatments for Bronze Birch Borer may provide two years of activity.

What to Expect After Treatment

TREE-äge will kill both the Bronze Birch Borer larvae under the bark as well as adult beetles that feed on the tree. IMA-jet will kill the Bronze Birch Borer larvae under the bark and deter adult feeding on the treated tree. TREE-äge will provide two years of residual control. A single application of IMA-jet will provide control of Bronze Birch Borer for a full year. The long term prognosis for trees that are treated early (i.e., before vascular injury) is very good to excellent. Tree recovery from an established infestation is relative to the severity of the infestation at the time of treatment.

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Oak Worms

Oak Worms

There are several caterpillars that feed on oaks including the California oak worm (Phryganidia californica) and tussock moth (Orgyia spp.). Each of these caterpillars feed on oak leaves, primarily in the spring, but can be active as second generation insects in late summer or early fall. Leaves will appear skeletonized in early stages and then completely consumed as larvae mature. Feeding is usually not noticed until frass or fecal pellets fall onto underlying patio furniture or cars where they are considered a nuisance.

Oak worms are smooth, small, yellow-green caterpillars with brown heads and dark stripes down their sides. They can range from 1/10 to 1 inch in length throughout their development. Tussock moth larvae are very distinctly hairy with three prominent creamcolored dots towards the head capsule.

In California, oak worm is most commonly found on coastal live oak in San Francisco, Monterey Bay, Santa Barbara, and other areas close to water sources. Tussock moth is common in San Francisco but can also be found along the Central Coast.

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A: California oak worm
B: Tussock moth (larvae)
Photo A taken by: Dawn Fluharty, Arborjet
Photo B taken by: Herbert A. ‘Joe’ Pase III, None, Bugwood.org
 

Symptoms

Healthy oaks affected by oak worm experience defoliation in the spring and throughout the summer from one or more of these pests. Damage may appear sporadically or thoughout the entire canopy. Many leaves appear partially chewed (skeletonized) and will turn brown and die, while other leaves may be completely eaten. Oaks that are experiencing other stresses, such as drought, can decline from oak worm infestation at a quicker rate. Look for signs of leaf feeding or fecal pellets around the base of the tree for activity or worms raining down on you.

Treatment

Trees that are in known areas of infestation can be treated preventatively in the early spring with TREE-äge® using rates according to the diameter size on the label at least 4-6 weeks prior to activity. Trees with current canopy infestations should be treated with ACE-jet for rapid response and then sequentially with TREE-äge for two years of control.

Early spring applications provide the most protection from feeding damage but later treatment will also stop mid- or latesummer infestations very well. Be sure to encourage watering of trees in naturalized areas that may have low soil moisture or natural rainfall in order to help upward distribution of the material into the canopy. Use of a soil surfactant such as NutriRoot™ in combination with watering will ensure deeper water penetration into the root system and ultimately better translocation of the systemic insecticide.

When to Treat

What to Expect After Treatment

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Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer

Polyphagous Shot Hole Borer (PSHB) is an exotic ambrosia beetle that was first detected in 2003 in Southern California and was recently found to be killing or infesting several hundred species of trees. It is currently found in L.A., Orange, San Bernardino, western Riverside, and San Diego Counties.

The “ambrosia” name refers to a symbiotic fungus that is carried by the female in special organs in her mouth parts. The fungus is grown in the beetle galleries and both the adult beetles and larvae feed on the fungi. The adult beetles are very small, ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 inches in length. They come in a range of shades between black (females) and brown (males) coloring. While this beetle attacks a large number of plant species, the majority of which are hardwoods, it can only reproduce in 31 species including maples, sycamore, oaks, willows, alders, and avocado.

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Symptoms

The characteristics of PSHB attack and fungus infection differ among tree species. The beetle commonly attacks the main stem and larger branches of trees and shrubs, but injury can be found on twigs as small as 1 inch in diameter. The beetle produces a very precise, perfectly round, tiny (< 0.1 inches in diameter) entry hole in most trees. Wet staining and discoloration on the bark of the main stem and branches are early symptoms of beetle attack. Depending on the tree species attacked, PSHB injury can be identified either by staining, gumming, or a sugaring response on the outer bark. Infection with the fungus can cause leaf discoloration and wilting, dieback of entire branches, and tree mortality.
 

A: Female polyphagous shot hole borer
B: Polyphagous shot hole borer caused bark staining
on sycamore
C: Polyphagous shot hole borer damage
D: Polyphagous shot hole borer attack point and bark
stain on sycamore
Photo A taken by: Stacy Hishinuma, UC Davis, Department of Entomology
Photo B taken by: Don Grosman, Arborjet
Photo C taken by: Don Grosman, Arborjet
Photo D taken by: Don Grosman, Arborjet
 
 

Treatment

Preventative treatment with TREE-äge® Insecticide prior to or just after initial PSHB attack is the better management strategy. If a tree is showing light to moderate attack levels, treatment with TREE-äge followed by Propizol® Fungicide is recommended at rates shown on product labels. TREE-äge provides 2 years of control of the beetle, while Propizol will protect trees from the fungi introduced by the ambrosia beetle. Use a soil surfactant, such as NutriRoot, as a sub-surface injection or drench, in combination with watering to encourage root growth, increase penetration of water into the soil, and to assure better translocation of the formulations throughout the tree.
 

 

In addition to the pests noted on the TREE-äge federally registered label, Arborjet supports a FIFRA Section 2(ee) recommendation for TREE-äge insecticide to control additional bud and leaf and shoot, stem, trunk and branch pests.  Please see the section 2(ee) recommendation to confirm that the recommendation is applicable in your state.

When to Treat

The most significant damage occurs from May through October so if PSHB is found near or on trees under your care, treatments should be made immediately.

Generally, the best seasons for injection are spring and fall, since the best uptake occurs when trees are actively transpiring, but treatments can be made at any time of the year when there is good soil moisture to encourage translocation of the systemic formulations.
 
The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40°F for trunk injection. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Hot weather and/or dry soil conditions may slow translocation of the product into the foliage, so consider using a soil surfactant, such as NutriRoot, in combination with watering before and after treatment application.

What to Expect After Treatment

Trunk injections with insecticide or combined with fungicide will distribute upward in the tree within 4-6 weeks with adequate soil moisture. For trees in natural, non-irrigated
areas with questionable soil moisture, consider using NutriRoot to enable trees to extract water from the soil, reducing the need for watering, and resulting in faster and better movement of systemic products even in drought conditions.

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Goldspotted Oak Borer

The Goldspotted Oak Borer is a flat-headed borer that was originally found around the San Diego, California area. GSOB are currently known to attack three species of oak: coastal live, canyon live, and California black. Adult GSOB are usually 10mm in length and have bullet-shaped black bodies with gold spots on their sides. Oaks with a DBH of 18 inches or above are at the highest risk of dying from a GSOB infestation.

 

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Symptoms

GSOB attacks can be recognized by extensive bark staining, which can appear as black regions or red blistering with sap oozing from under the bark. Adult exit holes signify previous GSOB attack. These emergence holes are D-shaped and about 1/8” in width. On coast live oak, the bark is frequently removed by woodpeckers as they forage for larvae and pupae; this reveals the deep red-colored outer bark that contrasts starkly with the gray exterior bark. The presence of the larvae and their galleries, the emergence holes, and the associated woodpecker damage all distinguish GSOB infestation from infection with Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death. The infestation of a tree eventually results in dieback of entire branches and tree mortality.

A: Dorsal view of an adult female goldspotted oak borer.
B: Feeding galleries of larvae underneath the bark.
Photo A taken by: USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Area FHP, Durham, NH Office
Photo B taken by: Tom Coleman, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Treatments should be applied preventively, before extensive disruption to the vascular tissues occurs. Dieback symptoms should be < 40%. Arborjet recommends treatment when GSOB is in your area, but trees still appear healthy for best outcomes. Treat oaks with TREE-äge® or IMA-jet using the TREE I.V., QUIK-jet Air® or QUIK-jet® systems. The large vasculature in oaks will readily move IMA-jet upward into the canopy. TREE-äge is more viscous and may take slightly longer to inject but will provide a longer residual effect. TREE-äge and IMA-jet will kill the GSOB larvae inside the tree.

See the TREE-äge and IMA-jet labels for dosage rates based on tree size.
 
To give the tree a greater health benefit, a follow-up application of MIN-jet Iron or NutriRoot is recommended.

When to Treat

Treat oaks if GSOB is reported nearby. Do not wait for visible dieback of canopy, as there is significant delay between disruption to the vascular tissues and expression of symptoms in the canopy. Delaying GSOB treatment could result in canopy dieback or tree loss.

Applications should be made in the spring, at least 30 days prior to expected adult emergence in June; however, treatment may be applied later in the growing season (July - November) to protect trees. Uptake of formulation is fastest when trees are actively transpiring when soil moisture is good. GSOB treatment in the spring will prevent the adult beetles from feeding and laying eggs in the tree, whereas summer treatment will kill the larval stage of GSOB feeding under the bark.

Make summer treatment applications in the morning when temperatures are moderate. If soil is dry, water trees before and after treatment. Consider using NutriRoot to enable trees to extract water from the soil, reducing the need for watering, and resulting in faster and better movement of systemic products even in drought conditions. Injections in the fall can protect trees for the following season. Trees need to be closely monitored for symptoms of GSOB as infestations build in your area. In general, applications are not made more than once a year. TREE-äge® treatments for GSOB provide two years of control.

What to Expect After Treatment

TREE-äge will kill the GSOB larvae under the bark as well as adult beetles that feed on foliage. TREE-äge will provide two years residual control.

IMA-jet will also kill the GSOB larvae under the bark and deter adult feeding in the canopy. A single application of IMA-jet will provide control of GSOB for a full year.

The long term prognosis for trees that are treated early (i.e., before vascular injury) is very good to excellent. Tree recovery from an established infestation is relative to the severity of the infestation at the time of treatment.

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Thrips

Thrips are slender, tiny insects that often have fringed wings and are generally 1 mm or less in size. Nymphs are elongate, lack wings and range in color from off-white or yellow to brown or black. Most thrips feed by sucking out cell contents of leaves or flowers, but some can cause leaf distortions or “galls” where they continue to feed and lay eggs. Thrips can have several generations (egg to adult) per year so these pest outbreaks can be very damaging. Although they are not good flyers they can be carried great distances by the wind. Given certain conditions, many species can amass a large population and travel in swarms.

 

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Symptoms

Initial feeding symptoms on leaves appear as pale spots or stipples from the piercing- sucking mouthparts. At times, black feces will be present next to whitish feeding scars, and this sign will help distinguish damage caused by aphids that do not leave hard fecal matter. Certain species that cause galls, such as Myoporum and Cuban Laurel Thrips, can cause all of the new growth to appear tightly rolled or pod-like at branch tips.

 

   

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
A: Onion thrip (nymphs).
B: Pear thrip (adult).
C: Onion thrip damage.
 
Photo A taken by: Louis-Michel Nageleisen, Département de la Santé des Forêts,
Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by: Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources -
Forestry Archive, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, B B ugwood.org

Treatment

Thrips infestations can be swift and fleeting in landscape situations and may not always require an insecticide unless feeding activity is prolonged. Begin treatment with IMA-jet or ACE-jet as soon as thrips damage is positively confirmed and consider a sequential application with MIN-jet Iron or PHOSPHO-jet to assist with tree recovery.

When to Treat

An IMA-jet treatment early in the lifecycle of thrips is very effective and provides season-long control. Later season infestations or higher populations that require rapid control respond well to ACE-jet unless growing conditions extend more than 60 days, in which case a combination of ACE-jet followed by a low- medium rate of IMA-jet will provide good control. In the case of chemical-sensitive areas, the use of Eco-Mite Plus™ and AzaSol™ will provide suppression on a two-week application schedule. Generally, the best seasons for injection are spring and fall, since uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40°F for trunk injection. Hot weather and/or dry soil conditions may slow translocation of product into foliage so water trees before and after treatment application. The addition of a soil surfactant, such as NutriRoot, as a drench or sub-surface soil injection will encourage water to move deeper into the soil and increase moisture availability to the tree over time. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake.

What to Expect After Treatment

IMA-jet treatment will stop feeding activity within one to two days for common leaf-feeding thrips. For gall-forming thrips, use the highest rate of IMA-jet as soon as possible in the spring to encourage thinning to assist in the removal of infestation centers.

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Aphids

Aphids are soft, pear-shaped insects that have long legs and antennae with tube-like structures called “cornicles” that protrude out of the hind end of the body. This family of insects contains most plant virus vectors (around 200 known) such as the green peach aphid. They can appear in a range of colors including green, yellow, brown, red, or black. Their color will depend on the plants that they are currently feeding on but the most commonly recognized aphids are green or black. Some aphids secrete a waxy or woolly substance on their bodies that can make them easy to identify. Most aphid populations are particularly high in the spring and fall seasons.

 

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Symptoms

Low to moderate numbers of leaf-feeding aphids are not usually damaging in gardens or on trees; however, large populations can turn leaves yellow and stunt shoots. Aphids can also produce large quantities of a sticky substance called honeydew, which turns black from opportunistic growth of a sooty mold fungus. Some aphid species inject a toxin into plants, which causes leaves to distort and inhibit their growth.

 


A: White pine aphid
B: Leafcurl ash aphid on green ash
C: Giant conifer aphids on juniper
 
Photo A taken by: William H. Hoffard, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
 
 

Treatment

 

Aphids are easily managed with either IMA-jet or ACEjet. IMA-jet will provide season-long control. Treat trees susceptible to aphid infestation in the spring with IMA-jet at rates of 2 to 4mL per inch diameter. Infestations of aphids late in the summer can also be treated with IMA-jet, but often a shorter residual product such as ACE-jet is appropriate.

When to Treat

 

An IMA-jet treatment early in the lifecycle of aphids is very effective and provides season-long control. Later season infestations or higher populations that require rapid control respond well to ACE-jet unless growing conditions extend more than 60 days, in which case a combination of ACE-jet followed by a low- medium rate of IMA-jet will provide good control. In the case of chemical-sensitive areas, the use of Eco-Mite Plus™ and AzaSol™ will provide suppression on a two-week application schedule. Generally, the best seasons for injection are spring and fall, since uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40°F for trunk injection. Hot weather and/or dry soil conditions may slow translocation of product into foliage so water trees before and after treatment application. The addition of a soil surfactant, such as NutriRoot, as a drench or sub-surface soil injection will encourage water to move deeper into the soil and increase moisture availability to the tree over time. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake.

What to Expect After Treatment

 

Trunk injections of IMA-jet will distribute upwards in the canopy within a day or so under adequate soil moisture conditions. Severe drought or inadequate irrigation coverage may slow down the translocation into foliage so tree owners should be advised to provide the necessary water prior to treatment. The addition of a soil surfactant such as NutriRoot™ as a drench or sub-surface soil injection will encourage water to move deeper into the soil and increase moisture availability over time. If a rapid response is more desirable, the use of ACE-jet will move more quickly into the foliage but does not have the residual of IMA-jet.

Click on the video link below to watch Eco-Mite Plus in action against aphids!

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Fire Blight

Fire blight is the most damaging bacterial disease that affects shrubs and trees in the Rosaceous family during warm spring weather combined with rains or heavy dews. This disease is most often found in pear, apple, loquat and crabapple trees and has become a nuisance to homeowners and commercial landscape managers. Flower infections can be introduced by bees and other insects from infected wood cankers that ooze bacterial substance in the spring. Trees infected with the fire blight bacterium Erwinia amylovora often have extensive limb cankers and dieback with a characteristic “Shepherd’s Crook” appearance at the tips of the shoots.

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A: Shoots infected with fire blight.
B: Flowers infected with fire blight.

 

Symptoms

The first sign of a fire blight infection is early death of flowers and then green shoots immediately adjacent to the flower petiole. The bacterium moves into the wood of twigs and lateral branches, which express black cankers and can turn completely black. By further spreading of the bacterium with rain splashes and insects to other flowers and shoots, symptoms will often appear scattered throughout the canopy. However, if the weather conditions are most favorable for disease progression and spreading, the whole canopy can be severely affected with a burned appearance thus explaining the name “fire blight.”

 

Treatment

For treatment of fire blight, use Arbor-OTC®.

Arbor-OTC is a systemic, water soluble, injectable antibiotic for the annual suppression of bacterial diseases in non-food bearing trees and palms. This shelf-stable water-soluble powder comes in two sizes and does not require refrigeration.

When to Treat

Early spring injections of Arbor-OTC® just as buds break is the most optimum time to treat susceptible trees. As late spring and summer temperatures begin to climb, the bacteria will go dormant when water in the soil is scarce and when temperatures are around 85-90°F. Additional treatment with Arbor-OTC at petal fall will continue to benefit the health of the tree until daytime temperatures reach this level.Generally, the best seasons for injection are spring and fall, since uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40°F for trunk injection. Hot weather and/or dry soil conditions may
slow translocation of product into foliage so water trees before and after treatment application. The addition of a soil surfactant, such as NutriRoot, as a drench or sub-surface soil injection will encourage water to move deeper into the soil and increase moisture availability to the tree over time. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake.

What to Expect After Treatment

 

The earlier in the bud break the injections are conducted, the better fire blight reduction is achieved. Trees that have adequate soil moisture and warm daytime temperatures will distribute Arbor-OTC upward in the tree within 7-10 days. When early spring dead wood removal is combined with annual treatments of Arbor-OTC, canopy loss will be tremendously reduced.

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Rugose Spiraling Whitefly

Rugose Spiraling Whitefly (RSW) produces “honeydew,” a sugary substance that can stick to your house, car, or patio and make a real sticky mess. Leaves or fronds may have excessive and unattractive dark sooty mold that grows on the honeydew. Leaf drop may occur in some species of trees and plants.

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Having your trees or palms treated for whitefly? Learn how to qualify a service provider and ensure you're receiving IMA-jet trunk injections.

Symptoms

whitefly infestation

An infestation of Rugose Spiraling Whitefly is generally easy to spot due to the sticky "honeydew" the insect produces. Black sooty mold may also grow on the honeydew, drawing further attention. The most obvious sign of an infestation is seeing the flies themselves as well as the white spiraling patterns they make on the bottoms of leaves, which may look like dust.

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a treatment with IMA-jet or AzaSol to combat Rugose Spiraling Whitefly. The TREE I.V. or QUIK-jet methods may be used, especially in combination with the palm injector kit for palm trees. IMA-jet works quickly throughout the tree's vascular system to deliver results within 3-4 days of treatment.

About IMA-jet

• Fast-acting
• Long-lasting control
• Industry leader
• Highly effective

About AzaSol

For fruit bearing trees, palms and plants
• Quick knockdown
• Zero day interval for fruit harvest
• Botanical product derived from neem plant

Why trunk injection?

  1. Fast Acting: Formulation is injected directly into the tree's transport system and is quickly distributed throughout the tree
  2. Effective: Proven by university trials
  3. Environmentally Responsible: Treatment is sealed in the tree
  4. Long Lasting: Trunk injection provides season-long protection

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F but no more than 90 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications occur when soil is extremely dry. Extra caution must be taken when treating trees in hot conditions, as doing so may result in an adverse reaction for the tree. Tree health will also affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

What to Expect After Treatment

Trunk injections of IMA-jet for Rugose Spiraling Whitefly should act quickly to knock down the current infestation. We recommend spraying the undersides of leaves with a steady stream of water to remove the spirals and any remaining insects.

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Pine Bark Beetles

There are numerous species of Ips and Dendroctonus, bark beetles,that infest conifers throughout North America.  Adults tunnel through the bark, mate and lay eggs in the phloem (inner bark). The larvae develop in the phloem and cambial region; pupal development is completed in the outer bark. Adults develop from pupae and emerge by boring out through the bark. Multiple generations a year are possible.

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"We have been getting great results with the Arborjet system and materials on many types of bark boring beetles this year. In fact, we’ve seen heavy activity of these beetles from the Bay Area, through the Sierra’s into Nevada, and are currently treating trees with Arborjet in Placerville, Reno, Auburn, the Tahoe area, Arnold, Sonora, as well as numerous locations along the coast.” --Michael Andrew, Director of AG Services for Clark Pest Control

image

Symptoms of infestation include: pitch tubes, reddish boring dust, adult exit holes, and yellowing foliage. The beetles commonly attack drought stressed trees. High numbers of attacks to trees are possible, which can result in extensive vascular injury and ultimately, tree death.


Photo A taken by USDA Forest Service - Region 8 - Southern Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Tia Smith, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by Dave Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Research studies using TREE-äge® insecticide (containing 4% Emamectin Benzoate) has demonstrated great results against conifer bark beetles, depending on the pest species targeted.

TREE-äge is for control of mature and immature arthropod pests of deciduous, coniferous, and palm trees including, but not limited to, those growing in residential and commercial landscapes, parks, plantations, seed orchards, and forested sites (in private, municipal, state, tribal and national areas). TREE-äge contains the active ingredient emamectin benzoate and is formulated to translocate in the tree's vascular system when injected. This product must be injected into active sapwood and will actively control pests for up to two years with a single application. 1,2

TREE-äge is designed for use with tree injection devices that meet the label and dose requirements (for example, the Arborjet Tree Injection Systems) for the control of listed pests of trees. Follow manufacturer's directions for equipment use.

Dosages are based on the Diameter (in inches) of the tree at Breast Height (DBH").

Placement of Injection Sites: Inject at the base of the tree. Inject into the stem within 12" of the soil, into the trunk flare or into tree roots exposing them by shallow excavation. Make applications into intact, healthy sapwood. Do not inject into injured areas or areas with decay. Select injection sites associated with stem growth.

Number of Injection Sites: Work around the tree, spacing injection sites approximately every 6.0 inches of tree's circumference.

Drill Depth: Drill through the bark then 5/8" to 1-5/8" into the sapwood with the appropriate sized drill bit. Use clean, sharp drill bits. Brad point bits are recommended. Precautions should be taken to avoid diseased areas and transferring infected tissues to other injection sites.

Resinous Conifers: In resinous conifers, such as pine and spruce, start the injection immediately after drilling into the sapwood. A prolonged delay may reduce uptake on account of resin flow into opening.

Effective injection treatment is favored by a full canopy (i.e., leaves) and healthy vascular system. Once these tissues are compromised by arthropod damage (larval galleries, defoliation, leaf mining, etc.) an effective and uniform application of TREE-äge may be difficult to achieve and subsequent control may be poor. Optimally, treatment should be made preventively at least 2 to 3 weeks before arthropods historically infest the host tree. As a result of systemic movement and longevity of TREE-äge in trees, this interval may be extended much earlier to 6 months should tree dormancy, adverse weather, management, asynchronous life cycle of pests, etc., allow earlier application timing.

TREE-äge may also be effective as a remedial treatment against some pests, such as those with slower development or if multiple life stages are susceptible to TREE-äge . Pests that attack the stem and branches such as bark beetles and clearwing borers may disrupt vascular tissue resulting in poor distribution in an infested tree. This includes the initial larval stages of pests, such as bark beetles and clearwing borers, that attack the stem and branches, which may disrupt vascular tissue resulting in poor distribution of the product in an infested tree. However, control may be achieved if larvae come into contact or feed on TREE-äge treated tissues.

Research studies using TREE-äge (containing 4% Emamectin Benzoate) have demonstrated great results against conifer bark beetles, depending on the pest species targeted. You can expect TREE-äge to be systemically distributed throughout the treated tree and protect the tree from the pest for up to 2 years.1,2

References:
1 Effectiveness of Two Systemic Insecticides for Protecting Western Conifers from Mortality Due to Bark Beetle Attack
Don M. Grosman, Christopher J. Fettig, Carl L. Jorgensen, and A. Steven Munson
Western Journal of Applied Forestry 25(4) 2010


2 Efficacy of Systemic Insecticides for Protection of Loblolly Pine Against Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Cuculionidae: Scolytinae) and Wood Borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
Donald M. Grosman and William W. Upton
Journal of Econ. Entomol. 99 (1): 94-101 (2006)


Important: Always read and follow label instructions before buying or using these products. The instructions contain important conditions of sale, including limitations of warranty and remedy.

TREE-äge is a Restricted Use Pesticide and may only be sold to and used by a state certified applicator or by persons under their direct supervision. TREE-äge is not registered for use in all states. Please check with your state or local extension service prior to buying or using this product.

TREE-äge® is registered trademark of Arborjet, Inc.

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Erythrina Gall Wasp

The Erythrina Gall Wasp is an exotic pest of the Wiliwili tree (Erythrina variegata).  Common tree names include tigers claw, Indian coral tree and Wiliwili-haole.  It was first discovered in Hawaii in 2005.  Populations of Wili-Wili or Erythrina occur in Hawaii, California and Florida.  EGW completes its lifecycle in as little as 21 days.  It is a destructive, exotic pest that may kill trees in as little as two years. If trees are at risk of EGW infestation, inspect trees on a regular basis, especially the new foliage.  Look for swelling (galls) in leaf tissue and in twigs.  It is our recommendation to treat to protect trees in advance of an infestation or as soon as possible following EGW detection.

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Erythrina Gall Wasp is an exotic leaf and twig galling wasp that attacks Wili-Wili trees. The developing EGW larvae induces galls in tender leaf and stem tissue. Unchecked infestations cause leaf deformation, reduction in growth, defoliation and tree death.


Photo A taken by M. Tremblay
Photo B taken by Albert Mayfield, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by M. Tremblay
Photo D taken by Albert Mayfield, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Bugwood.org

Research studies were conducted independently in Hawaii by the University of Hawaii and the USFS to evaluate the efficacy of Arborjet's IMA-jet (5 % imidacloprid) systemic insecticide for treatment of Erythrina Gall Wasp. Trees that were systemically treated with IMA-jet effectively controlled EGW in both the ornamental landscape and in native, dry upland sites.

IMA-jet is a systemic insecticide used to control a variety of insect pests of ornamental or forest trees. Pests controlled include aphids, whiteflies, soft scales, adelgids, gall forming wasps, leafhoppers, lace bugs, mealybugs, psyllids, serpentine leafminers, sawflies, thrips and leaf feeding beetles. Use IMA-jet as directed in trees in residential, business and commercial areas, golf courses, airports, cemeteries, parks, street trees, playgrounds, athletic fields, commercial forestry production, seed orchard trees, nurseries, and in private, municipal, state, federal, county and local recreational forests.

Read the entire label before use. Failure to follow label directions may result in poor control or plant injury.

Treat trees by microinjection (using the Arborjet QUIK-jet or Arborjet Air Hydraulic Device) or by Micro-InfusionTM (using the Arborjet TREE I.V.).

Dosages are based on the Diameter (in inches) of the tree at Breast Height (DBH"). Measure the tree diameter in inches at chest height (54"from ground) to find the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). If measuring tree circumference, divide circumference by 3 to obtain the DBH in inches. Placement of Injection Sites: Make applications around the base of the tree. Inject into tree roots exposing them by careful excavation or, alternatively into the trunk flare or tissue immediately above the trunk flare, locating the injection site in the first few xylem (i.e., sapwood) elements. Make applications into intact, healthy sapwood. Do not inject into injured areas or areas with decay. Select injection sites associated with stem growth. Number of Injection Sites: Work around the tree, spacing injection sites approximately every 6.0 inches of tree's circumference. Drill Depth: Drill holes through the bark and into the sapwood a minimum of 3/8" deep. When using the Arborjet Arborplug, drill a minimum of 5/8" deep into the sapwood. Use clean, sharp drill bits. Brad point bits are recommended.

For optimum results, apply IMA-jet prior to infestation. Also apply when insects are infesting and feeding upon the tree. IMA-jet insecticide moves upward into the tree's canopy from the application sites. Systemic activity occurs only after the active ingredient is translocated upward in the tree. This product must be applied below the bark into the sapwood (i.e., the vascular) tissues.
Uptake is dependent upon the tree's transpiration. Transpiration is dependent on a number of abiotic and biotic factors, such as soil moisture, soil and ambient temperature, and time of day. For uptake, apply when soil is moist, soil temperatures are above 45 degrees F, ambient temperatures are between 40 degrees to 90 degrees F, and during the 24 hour period when transpiration is greatest, typically before 2:00 PM. Applications to drought or heat stressed trees may result in injury to tree tissue, poor treatment and subsequent control. Avoid treating trees that are moisture stressed or suffering from herbicide damage.

Dosages are designed for insect control and retreatment is generally not necessary during the year after initial treatment. Monitor insect activity to establish a damage threshold for retreatment. Repeat applications as necessary. Studies have demonstrated that label use rates of IMA-jet provided at least 13 months of control of EGW. Reduction of leaf and twigs galled were observed following systemic tree injection treatment. Treating with IMA-jet does not remove the existing galls (symptoms), but the active ingredient moves into the soft tissues where larvae feed to affect control.

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Asian Longhorned Beetle

The Asian Longhorned beetle is an invasive, wood boring insect from China which was accidentally introduced to the U.S. via packing materials. ALB is a member of the Cerambycid family. The adults are large, black beetles, approximately 1 - 1 1/2 inches long with irregular white spotting on their wing covers and very long, black and white striped antennae. Onthe male, the length of the antennae can be up to twice the length of their body. The larva is cream colored, grub-like, approximately 1-2 inches long when mature. This horned beetle has been identified in NY, NJ, IL, MA, and recently OH.

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Symptoms of ALB infestation are similar to symptoms of many pest infestations, including yellowing leaves, and dieback of branches. Specific signs include bleeding wounds in the trunk or large limb bark, indicating oviposition of eggs. There may also be large (3/8 inch) sized, perfectly circular holes in the trunk or large limbs and frass (sawdust) on the ground near the holes. The beetles themselves may also be visible during mid to late summer months, feeding in the canopy.


Photo A taken by Kenneth R. Law, USDA APHIS PPQ, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Thomas B. Denholm, New Jersey Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by Steven Katovich, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo D taken by Dennis Haugen, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Because the Asian Longhorned Beetle bores into the sapwood of the tree, it can be most effectively controlled with systemically applied insect control products. Currently, IMA-jet is labeled for use against Asian Longhorned Beetle under USDA supervision only. For insect control, this product must be placed into the tree's sapwood, the conductive tissue that moves water to the canopy. Make applications around the base of the tree. Inject into tree roots exposing them by careful excavation or, alternatively into the trunk flare or tissue immediately above the trunk flare, locating the injection site in the first few xylem (i.e., sapwood) elements. Drill holes through the bark and into the sapwood a minimum of 3/8 inches deep. When using the Arborjet Arborplug, drill a minimum of 5/8 inches deep into the sapwood. The dosages and number of application sites are based on tree diameter. To determine the application/dose rate per tree: 1) measure the tree diameter in inches at chest height (54 inches from ground) to find the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). If measuring tree circumference, divide circumference by 3 to obtain the DBH in inches; 2) calculate the number of injection sites by dividing the DBH in inches by 2; and 3) refer to the label for dose rate of IMA-jet to be applied.

 

For optimum results, apply IMA-jet prior to infestation. Also apply when insects are infesting and feeding upon the tree. IMA-jet insecticide moves upward into the tree's canopy from the application sites. Systemic activity occurs only after the active ingredient is translocated upward in the tree. This product must be applied below the bark into the sapwood (i.e., the vascular) tissues. In the case of severe infestation, use the highest label rate for the targeted pest. In trees larger than 24 inches use the highest rate listed for that insect pest. The need for an application can be based on historical monitoring of the site, previous records or experiences, current season adult trapping and other methods. Due to potential foliar injury or poor (i.e., slow) uptake, do not apply to trees stressed by drought or extreme heat.

Dosages are designed for insect control and retreatment is generally not necessary during the year after initial treatment. Monitor insect activity to establish a damage threshold for retreatment. Repeat applications as necessary.

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Sudden Oak Death

Sudden oak death (SOD) is the common name for a fatal tree disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum, a species of oomycetes that are similar to fungi.  SOD is one of 59 species of Phytophthora, all of which cause disease in plants.  Many Phytophthora species attack roots in poorly drained or anaerobic soils.  The primary hosts are coast live oak, California black oak, Shreve oak, tan oak, and canyon live oak.  Many more cultivated species are likely susceptible to P. ramorum.  Symptoms in other species are often expressed as leaf blight. P. ramorum can cause foliar disease in Douglas-fir, coast redwood and California bay laurel.  Unlike many Phytophthora species that infect roots, P. ramorum is mainly a foliar pathogen.

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Symptoms

Leaves will appear drought- stressed, sometimes turning dull green, yellow, red, or purple as they wilt. Infected bark will be is water- soaked, with red-brown discoloration and has a disagreeable odor. Bleeding cankers form at the base of the trunk and eventually lead to death. P. ramorum infection is usually followed by beetle infestation and/or an alternate pathogen infection.

SOD symptoms are very similar to other common fungal infections. A positive identification of the disease requires sending a tissue sample to a qualified lab.



Photo A and B taken by Joseph O'Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Arborjet recommends the use of PHOSPHO-jet, a systemic fungicide for treatment of Sudden Oak Death. Arborjet recommends a two pronged approach.

  1. Micro-injection of PHOSPHO-jet into susceptible host trees.

  2. Amend the soil around the tree with humates (high quality organic matter). Phytophthora thrives in poorly drained and anaerobic soils. The addition of humates will help to increase soil aeration and make the root environment less conducive to disease development. Arborjet recommends a product such as Biostarter which includes beneficial bacteria that will create a less hospitable environment for Phytophthora. Humates are available from Boston Tree Preservation in the Boston area.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when the soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will also affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

Best outcomes are in susceptible trees treated prophylactically. When treating for SOD, it is best to treat in fall to minimize the risk of spreading the infection. Disinfect drill bits and injection needles between trees.

What to Expect After Treatment

Tree recovery will be dependent upon the severity of the Phytophthora infection at the time of trunk injection. PHOSPHO-jet acts as a fungicide and, as an added benefit, stimulates new root growth. The addition of humates will create a soil environment that favors root growth over disease development

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Oak Wilt

Oak wilt is a disease caused by the fungus Ceratocystis fagacearum that is specific to oaks (Quercus spp.). The fungus is spread through root grafts between neighboring trees and by insects.  Red Oaks are particularly susceptible to oak wilt. The infection causes leaf discoloration, defoliation and death in a very short period of time (from two months to one year).  Fungal mats will form under the bark and force outwards, cracking the bark of the tree.  White oaks are more tolerant of oak wilt infection.  Fungal mats will not form and it will take much longer for the tree to succumb to the disease.  White oaks will show infected annual rings when viewed in cross section.

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Oak Wilt symptoms

Symptoms

Initial symptoms of oak wilt will beare browning leaves, beginning at the leaf tip and moving downward and inward toward the stem. As the disease progresses, limbs will die off. . Fungal mats may develop under the bark, pushing the bark out and causing cracks. Untreated, the tree will die, sometimes within a matter of months.


Photo A taken by Minnesota Department of Natural Resources Archive, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by USDA Forest Service Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a trunk injection of Propizol (propiconazole 14.3%). Propiconazole is a systemic fungicide that will suppress Ceratocystis fagacearum. Because Oak Wilt is spread through root grafts and insect carriers, Arborjet recommends the treatment of non-infected oaks in close proximity to the infected trees to slow the spread of the disease. Oak Wilt is an aggressive vascular wilt disease; treat trees when the disease has been diagnosed in your area. Applying Propizol in advance of infection will greatly reduce or eliminate likelihood of infection. When treating multiple trees, it is recommended to disinfect drill bits and injection equipment between trees.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees fahrenheit for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment. When treating pro-actively in non-infected trees, inject after June 15 to avoid attracting disease carrying beetles to the tree. If treating therapeutically, or for an existing infection, it is best to treat immediately.

 

What to Expect After Treatment

Tree recovery with Propizol will be proportional to the severity of the infection at the time of treatment. Trunk injection of propiconazole will kill and suppress Ceratocystis fagacearum and allow the tree to refoliate. Trees should be re-evaluated for retreatment every 12-36 months.

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Root Rot

Phytophthora is a genus of oomycetes that are similar to fungi.  There are 59 species of Phytophthora , all of which cause disease in plants.  Phytophthora ramorum is the species responsible for Sudden Oak Death.  Phytophthora are natural and universally occurring soil organisms which attack roots in poorly drained or anaerobic soils.  As infected roots discolor and decay, the result is wilt, canopy dieback, cankers on the trunk, general decline and death.  Phytophthora species are host specific attacking many types of trees including ash, cherry, pine, spruce, hemlock, fir, pear and dogwood.

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Symptoms

Leaves will appear drought-stressed, sometimes turning dull green, yellow, red, or purple as they wilt. Infected bark is water-soaked, with red-brown discoloration and has a disagreeable odor. Bleeding cankers form at the base of the trunk and eventually lead to death. Phytophthora root rot infection is often followed by beetle infestation and/or an alternate pathogen infection.


Photo A taken by William M. Brown, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Joseph Obrien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Arborjet recommends the use of PHOSPHO-jet, a systemic fungicide for treatment of Sudden Oak Death. Arborjet recommends a two pronged approach.

1. Micro-injection of PHOSPHO-jet into susceptible host trees

2. Amend the soil around the tree with humates (high quality organic matter). Phytophthora thrives in poorly drained and anaerobic soils. The addition of humates will help to increase soil aeration and make the root environment less conducive to disease development. Arborjet recommends a product such as Biostarter which includes beneficial bacteria that will create a less hospitable environment for Phytophthora. Humates are available from Boston Tree Preservation.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

What to Expect After Treatment

Tree recovery will be dependent upon the severity of the Phytophthora infection at the time of trunk injection. PHOSPHO-jet acts as a fungicide and as an added benefit, stimulates new root growth. The addition of humates will create a soil environment that favors root growth over disease development

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Chlorosis

Iron or manganese chlorosis (interveinal chlorosis) describes a condition in which a tree’s foliage loses its healthy green color and fades to a pale green or yellow hue. This condition, if allowed to progress, will cause slow growth, leaf loss, and eventually tree death. Chlorosis is often caused by deficiencies of the micro-elements iron and manganese, and is particularly prevalent in oak. In alkaline soils, iron and manganese become insoluble and unavailable to the tree. Trees growing in poorly drained soils are also susceptible to iron chlorosis.

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Symptoms

The primary symptom is the fading of the leaf color from green to increasingly paler shades of green and, when extreme, to an almost yellow tone.

A: Oak showing signs of Iron Chlorosis.
B: Healthy Pin Oak after micro-infusion with MIN-jet Iron.
Phota A taken by Joseph O'Brien. USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Treatment

For treatment of iron or manganese chlorosis,use MIN-jet Iron followed by NutriRoot (optional).

  • MIN-jet Iron is trunk injected and formulated for foliar chlorosis in hardwood trees, providing water soluble, organic chelates of iron, manganese, zinc, boron and copper sulfate to promote healthy leaf function.
  • NutriRoot is an unique two-component formulation of a nutrient package and water manager in one, providing a single solution for managing drought stress, reducing watering, and accelerating root growth.

Arborjet recommends a two-pronged approach to treating foliar chlorosis.

  1. Trunk Injection

    By injecting minerals which are deficient in the tree directly into the xylem tissue, these minerals available to the tree immediately; thus, it is the fastest way to alleviate symptoms of chlorosis and improve the health of the tree. In oaks and birches, use the QUIK-jet® to apply MIN-jet Iron which is specially formulated for iron deficiency. By rapidly providing the minerals the tree needs, it is able to respond rapidly and generally will have darker, healthier leaves within days or weeks of application.

  2. Soil Application

    Arborjet recommends a supplemental follow-up application of NutriRoot, which should be applied as a soil drench. NutriRoot is a unique two-component formulation of a water manager and nutrient blend. The nutritional supplement includes humic acid, kelp, and micro-nutrients designed to enhance soil conditions for accelerated root development. NutriRoot makes watering more efficient, reduces plant stress, and increases water storage in plants.

MIN-jet Iron Label

NutriRoot Label

 

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40°F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

For foliar chlorosis, the best time to treat is in the fall, following leaf coloration for foliage responses in the following growing season. When treating in the early spring or summer, use the lowest (micro-injection) label rates. Make applications prior to bud break in spring or, alternatively following leaf maturation (June 15). Always use the lowest label rates when treating birch trees.

What to Expect After Treatment

Recovery will be proportional to the level of the severity of chlorosis at the time of treatment. Response to treatment can be very rapid; you can expect to see noticeable greening and improved vitality within the growing season and often within weeks of application. Tree responses vary with soil conditions. Calcitic soils with little organic matter require comprehensive approach to treatment, including soil amendments.

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Dutch Elm Disease

Dutch elm disease is a vascular wilt disease that causes rapid decline in as few as 6 weeks after infection.  American and European elms are commonly infected in two ways: via elm bark beetles that vector the disease from infected to healthy trees, or via fungi that are transmitted through root grafts. Dutch elm disease is an aggressive disease that is almost always fatal to the host tree once it becomes established.

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Symptoms

Leaves show signs of wilting (flagging), yellowing and browning. Brown or purplish discoloration is found in sapwood under the bark and dieback will occur shortly after symptoms are first discovered.


Photo A taken by Fred Baker, Utah State University, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Pest and Diseases Image Library, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by R. Scott Cameron, Advanced Forest Protection, Inc, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Dutch Elm Disease must be treated proactively before the disease is present in the tree. The disease spreads so quickly that treatment on diseased trees may not be effective. Arborjet recommends a trunk injection of Propizol® Fungicide (14.3% propiconazole) with the TREE I.V., as a proactive treatment, or else at the earliest stages of infection. If treating an infected tree, the following should be performed in addition to the micro-infusion treatment:

  • Prune flagging branches immediately as the vascular wilt moves rapidly in the sapwood.
  • Strip the bark from the branch with flagging symptoms.
  • Inspect the sapwood for streaking (dark staining).
  • Cut the branch 6-10 feet beyond the discolored area to clear wood, ideally to a branch bark collar.
  • Properly dispose of the infected wood or debark it completely.
  • Make sure to disinfect all tools between each cut or drill hole using a bleach solution.
  • Trenching between infected and non-infected trees will slow the spread of the disease by root grafts.

When to Treat

For Dutch Elm Disease, we recommend that Propizol is applied in the spring prior to beetle flight. Best treatment response can be expected when less than 15% of the canopy is affected. In dry conditions, watering the tree will improve uptake of the injection treatment. Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40°F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating.  For  example,  a  declining  tree  (>50%  canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

What to Expect After Treatment

Tree recovery will be dependent upon the severity of the Dutch Elm Disease infection at the time of trunk injection, as well as upon the extent of eradicative pruning. Propizol is best used as a proactive application before  signs  of  infection  are  present.  Up  to  60%  of infected elm trees have recovered using the pruning and treatment techniques recommended above.

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Anthracnose

Anthracnose (leaf blight) is a fungus that winters on twig tissue on the tree.  In the spring, spores are transported to new buds and shoots.  The disease is enhanced by cool, wet conditions.  Infected leaves develop tan to reddish brown lesions that extend along the veins of the leaf.  Considerable defoliation, sometimes with complete leaf loss, occurs on many trees by late spring in cool, wet years.

Different species of anthracnose impact a variety of tree species, including oak, ash, maple, elm, hickory, walnut, birch, linden, sycamore and dogwood.  Sycamore, white oak and dogwood are particularly susceptible to anthracnose. 

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Symptoms

The primary signs of anthracnose are tan to red-brown lesions that extend along the veins and edges of the leaf, as well as considerable defoliation, sometimes with complete leaf loss.


Photo A by Joseph O'Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Theodor D. Leininger,USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a trunk injection with a systemic fungicide, either PHOSPHO-jet or Propizol® Fungicide. PHOSPHO-jet inhibits fungal cells while eliciting a plant health response from the tree. PHOSPHO-jet will promote stronger, healthier tree cells, promote root development, and trigger the tree’s natural defense mechanisms to make the tree more resistant to infection and better able to recover. Propizol will have more direct and aggressive activity against the fungus itself and is recommended if infection is chronic or particularly severe.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40°F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.


Propizol applied in the fall will slow the spread of infection the following spring and help the tree to foliate more normally. PHOSPHO-jet may be applied in the fall following leaf coloration or early spring prior to twig infection.

What to Expect After Treatment

Trees may still defoliate despite our best efforts; however, we recommend treatments that enhance tree health. For example, trees treated with PHOSPHO-jet tend to recover more readily from defoliation. Avoid high nitrogen fertilizers, which may exacerbate fungal infection. Rather, apply NutriRoot™, which will supply phosphorous, potassium, iron, manganese, humectants, humic acid and a low dose of nitrogen for healthy leaf and root development. In high pH soils, apply MIN-jet Iron as an injection.

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Apple Scab

Apple scab is a fungal disease caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, which affects leaves, fruit and twigs. While most common in apple trees, both pear and hawthorn are also frequently infected by the fungus. Outbreaks will be most severe following particularly wet and cool spring conditions.


The fungus overwinters on fallen leaves and begins to develop spores in the spring prior to bud break. The spores are then transported by wind, rain or other physical means to infect tender, developing leaves, twigs and fruit. Once the fungal infection is established in the newly forming tissues, more spores are produced and spread to other areas of the tree.

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Apple Scab symptoms

Symptoms

Infection is commonly evidenced first by brownish-green spots on the leaves or fruit. As the infection progresses, the spots on the fruit become darker and more prominent and take on a somewhat fuzzy texture. When infection is severe, leaves will turn yellow and drop off. Fruit will become deformed and/or drop off prior to ripening.


Photo A taken by Joseph O'Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a trunk injection with a systemic fungicide, either PHOSPHO-jet or Propizol® Fungicide in ornamental trees.

PHOSPHO-jet inhibits fungal cells while eliciting a plant health response from the tree. PHOSPHO-jet will promote stronger, healthier tree cells, promote root development, and trigger the tree’s natural defense mechanisms to make the tree more resistant to infection and better able to recover. Propizol will have more direct and aggressive activity against the fungus itself and is recommended if the infection is chronic or particularly severe.


While Propizol is a more potent fungicide, it will not have the plant health benefits of PHOSPHO-jet. It should not be used on trees where the fruit will be eaten.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

The best results will be achieved when PHOSPHO-jet or Propizol are applied prior to infection. Applying PHOSPHO-jet or Propizol in the fall will minimize or prevent infection the following spring. If applying in the spring, it should be applied as early in the spring as possible, before or at bud break.

If treating an established infection, Propizol is recommended as a first treatment, with subsequent treatments of PHOSPHO-jet as necessary. Assess tree health prior to treatment.

What to Expect After Treatment

Tree recovery will be proportional to the severity of the infection at the time of treatment. Proactive treatment, either the preceding fall or very early in the spring, prior to bud break, will suppress or prevent infection. PHOSPHO-jet will elicit a plant health response that helps trees endure the infection and look healthier and more robust. A total of 1-3 injections might be needed depending on the disease pressure in a given season.

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Winter Moth

Winter Moth, an invasive pest introduced from Europe and the Near East, causes severe defoliation of hardwood trees.  Winter Moth is appropriately named, as adult moths are generally active from November through January.  The larvae begin feeding early on developing leaves; severe infestations will cause noticeable tree defoliation.  In June, they drop to the ground to pupate in the soil until the fall.  Canadian research has shown that four consecutive years of defoliation can ultimately lead to tree mortality.

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Winter Moth Symptoms

Symptoms

Early detection of Winter Moth is difficult, as the first instar larvae begin feeding while the pre-formed leaf is still in the bud. The first symptoms will be visible only after buds break and leaves unfurl, revealing small feeding holes in the leaves; at this point, the larvae are still generally too small to be seen. Over the early weeks of the spring, the feeding damage on the leaf will become more obvious and the caterpillars may grow to a visible size. The caterpillars may also be seen descending from the canopy on silken threads. Extensive populations of Winter Moth can cause severe defoliation of the tree.


Photo A taken by Louis-Michel Nageleisen, Department de la Santa des Forets, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Hannes Lemme, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by Arborjet, Inc research, b Anette Linnea Rasmussen (fotolia.com)

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a well-timed injection of ACE-jet using either the Tree I.V. or QUIK-jet. ACE-jet should be applied when the larvae are actively feeding. ACE-jet is compatible with MIN-jet Iron for a 2-in-1 application of insect control and nutrition. ACE-jet moves quickly and easily to the leaves, and provides rapid treatment.

Another option is to treat with an injection of TREE-äge, which can control Winter Moth for up to two years. TREE-äge can be injected as long as the soil temperature is above 40 degrees F and below 90 degrees F.

*Important: Always read and follow label instructions before buying or using these products. The instructions contain important conditions of sale, including limitations of warranty and remedy. TREE-äge® Insecticide is a Restricted Use Pesticide and must only be sold to and applied by a state certified applicator. TREE-äge® is not registered for use in all states. Please check with your state or local extension service prior to buying or using this product. TREE-äge® is a registered trademark of Arborjet, Inc.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, was uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications occur when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, it is best to inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will also affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

Use ACE-jet in early spring, before buds break, when Winter Moth outbreaks are expected. Alternatively, treat when leaf injury first appears, or when caterpillars are first observed. One application is sufficient to control Winter Moth. ACE-jet remains active to protect the tree canopy for approximately 3 to 5 weeks.

Another option is to treat with an injection of TREE-äge, which can control Winter Moth for up to two years. TREE-äge can be injected as long as the soil temperature is above 40 degrees F and below 90 degrees F.

Lastly, AzaSol may be used as a soil drench, bark spray, or chemigation formula.

What to Expect After Treatment

ACE-jet trunk injection in the spring will uptake very quickly and caterpillars will die rapidly. Monitor trees annually to determine the need for a repeat treatment.

Trunk-injected ACE-jet moves rapidly to the growing points in the canopy, where caterpillars feed. Upon ingestion of ACE-jet insecticide, leaf feeding stops and caterpillars die.

TREE-äge may work more slowly through the tree's vascular system but will have a longer residual protection time than ACE-jet, making it ideal for multi-season protection. You will still want to monitor the tree's overall health to see if reapplication is necessary.

AzaSol is not trunk-injected like ACE-jet and TREE-äge, meaning it may have to be applied more frequently to maintain control. Please refer to label instructions for proper usage.

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Mites

Spider mites infest a variety of conifer species, including pines, spruce, hemlocks, arborvitaes and others. The mites pierce and suck nutrients from conifer needles.  Because spider mites are so tiny, the easiest way to diagnose infestation is to take a twig sample from your conifer and beat it against a white piece of paper; the spider mites will appear as moving brown specks on the paper.  Spider mites create webbing at the base of needles and branches.

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image

Symptoms

Needles will become mottled in color. This will progress into needle discoloration and in severe infestations, needle loss.


Photo A taken by Rayanne Lehman, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by USDA Forest Service - Region 4 - Intermountain Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photos C and D taken by John A. Weidhass, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, www.forestryimages.org

Treatment

A properly time application of ACE-jet can significantly reduce or eliminate the existing population of mites on the tree. ACE-jet can be mixed with MIN-jet Iron for a pesticide/fertilizer injection.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications occur when the soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, it issi best to inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

ACE-jet should be applied at the first sign of mite feeding.

Since spider Mmites prefer hot and dry conditions, and infestation usually becomes severean issue in the summer months. Arborjet recommends a program of mMonitor ing environmental conditions during the summer months: d. uring periods of summer stress, inspect trees for building mite infestations, which are particularly injurious to conifers. In other words, keep one eye on the trees and another eye on the weather. For fastest uptake rate, early morning is the best time to inject in the summer months During hot weather, treatments should be made . Uptake rates will be fastest early in the mornings during , which is the coolest part of the day. If the soil is dry, water the tree thoroughly. ACE-jet moves rapidly into foliage for effective and If the infestation is present, this new insecticide can be injected for quick mite control. kill of mites.

What to Expect After Treatment

This injectable insecticide will quickly kill the mites present. However, ACE-jet has limited residual value and may require more than one application to protect against reinfestation

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Leaf Chewing Caterpillar

Caterpillars belong to the insect order Lepidoptera.  Caterpillars are the larval stage of moths and are among the most serious defoliators of trees.  One example is the eastern tent caterpillar Malacosoma americanum, responsible for defoliating forest trees, as well as cherry, apple and other ornamental shade trees. Other Lepidoptera pests include the gypsy moth, winter moth, spring and fall cankerworm, bagworm, clear wing borers, pine tip moth and tussock moth.  Some moth larvae, such as tip moths and clear wing borers, feed inside the twigs, shoots or trunk of the tree and are virtually unseen.

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caterpillar symptoms

Symptoms

For leaf-chewing caterpillars, the obvious symptom is skeletonized or mostly consumed leaves. The caterpillar itself can often be visibly observed feeding on the leaf tissue. For moth larvae which bore into the shoot, twig or trunk, symptoms will include brown stunted tips, branch dieback and exit holes in the trunk.


Photo A taken by USDA Forest Service - Region 8 - Southern Archive, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Gerald J. Lenhard, Louisiana State Univ,. Bugwood.org

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a well- timed trunk injection of ACE-jet. It may be applied either as a micro-infusion with the Tree I.V. or a micro-injection with the QUIK-jet.

The ACE-jet is highly water soluble and moves easily through the tree's vascular system. It is a fast- acting "quick knock down" product for eliminating the pest population in a tree.It breaks down quickly in the tree to nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur, resulting in the subsequent greening of foliage. ACE-jet comes in a soluble granular form to maintain maximum potency until it is ready to be used.

When to Treat

Monitor trees for injury by caterpillars, often seen as pin holes or notching in the leaf. Apply ACE-jet as soon as symptoms of injury, or as the caterpillars themselves, become visible. Depending on species, infestations occur in spring or early summer. Timing is important as the ACE-jet will only remain active in the tree for three to five weeks. Caterpillars feeding on foliage and tips of twigs are susceptible to ACE-jet treatments.

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, since uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake so trees should be watered thoroughly if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will also affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment.

Use ACE-jet in early spring, before buds break when caterpillar outbreaks are expected. Alternatively, treat when injury to leaves first appears, or caterpillars are first observed. One application is sufficient to control these caterpillars, as ACE-jet remains active to protect the tree canopy for approximately 3 to 5 weeks.

What to Expect After Treatment

ACE-jet applied during tree transpiration will uptake very quickly and caterpillars will die rapidly. Trees may also appear greener and healthier as ACE-jet breaks down into elements which can be utilized as nutrition by the tree. Annual monitoring is required to determine need for retreatment..

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Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

The Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (HWA) is a tiny, piercing and sucking insect, unseen with the naked eye, that feeds on hemlock twigs at the bases of the needles.  HWA is an invasive species from Asia which has infested the US East Coast hemlock forest from New Hampshire to Georgia, inhibiting twig growth throughout.  It has also recently been found in Michigan and it is believed to be expanding its range due to changes in climate.

HWA has a complex life cycle; its winter generation and spring generation overlap in the spring.  It feeds and reproduces during the colder months, going dormant in the summer.

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Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

Symptoms

The earliest visible sign of HWA is the presence of white, cottony masses, usually located on the twigs and at the bases of the needles. Populations tend to be denser in the lower limbs, but can be anywhere on the tree. Symptoms will progress to fading, thinning and dying limbs, which die off beginning at the base of the tree and moving upwards. Left untreated, the death of the tree is certain.


Photo taken by John A. Weidhass, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Bugwood.org

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a trunk injection of IMA-jet (active ingredient, imidacloprid) insecticide using the TREE I.V. system or using the QUIK-jet micro-injector. The TREE I.V. is designed to work effectively with the hemlock's primitive tracheid vascular system; it injects high volumes of product under low pressure, resulting in efficient uptake. The QUIK-jet works best with low volumes of applications in hemlock, and takes only minutes to apply. To give the tree a greater health benefit, a follow up application of ROOT-jet Iron or MIN-jet Iron is recommended, the specific formulation dependent upon soil type. Each product is formulated to supply essential nutrients to support foliar development without added nitrogen, which could exacerbate HWA infestations. When applied to the soil, ROOT-jet Iron supplies phosphorous and potassium, as well as iron and manganese. MIN-jet iron supplies both iron and manganese, micro-elements that may be sequestered in high pH soils, but are essential to healthy, green foliage.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will also affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment. In hemlock, fall treatments coincide with HWA resumption of feeding. Applications of IMA-jet may be applied in hemlock from September through December, as long as soil temperatures are above 40 degrees F. The second window for application is in the spring months, from March through June.

image

What to Expect After Treatment

Injection time varies depending on the environmental conditions, tree health and method of application. Uptake time is approximately 15 - 30 minutes for the high volume dosages applied by Tree I.V. Applications made at lower doses with the QUIK-jet may be applied in as little as 3 to 5 minutes per tree. Systemic activity of IMA-jet occurs when the active ingredient, Imidacloprid moves upward into the foliage from the injection sites. Adelgid mortality occurs after ingestion, generally within 14-28 days, and continues for up to 2 years. Cottony masses remain for some time, but will turn a distinctive gray color. Hemlocks respond positively to treatment with a resumption of twig growth.

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Emerald Ash Borer

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) is an invasive pest introduced from Asia that attacks ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) This metallic wood boring beetle was found in Detroit, Michigan and Ontario, Canada in 2002, and has continued to spread into neighboring states and  eventually across the U.S. and Canada. The adult is a small, metallic green beetle only 10-15 mm in length and about 3 mm in width. The larvae live under the bark of the tree and feed in the vascular cambium. The adults typically emerge around June, leaving D-shaped exit holes in the bark. This ash tree insect briefly feeds in the canopy before reproducing and laying eggs in the twigs and branches.

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treatment for the emerald ash borer beetle

Symptoms

EAB larvae live under the bark and feed on the vascular tissues. Larvae create meandering galleries through the phloem, vascular cambium and etch the xylem, effectively girdling the tree. The tree responds by sprouting new (epicormic) branches below the disrupted tissues. Dieback of the canopy is a symptom of EAB larval infestation as many as one half of the branches may die back as infestation progresses. The bark will split over dead vascular tissues, and trees may die within only two years of the onset of symptoms.


Photo A taken by Dave Cappaert
Photo B taken by Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources - Forestry Archive, Bugwood.org
Photo C taken by Joseph O'Brien, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org
Photo D taken by Arborjet, Inc

 

Emerald Ash Borer's effects in Elgin, IL.

Emerald Ash Borer is devastating thousands of communities like this. It can cost $800-$1,200 to remove dead ash trees. Treatments with TREE-äge® are protecting ash trees at a fraction of the cost.

Treatment


*TREE-age® insecticide is a Restricted Use Pesticide and must only be sold to and applied by a state certified applicator. TREE-age®  is not registered for use in all states. Please check with your state or local extension service prior to buying or using this product. TREE-age® is registered trademark of Arborjet, Inc.

When to Treat

Treat ash if EAB is reported in your area. Do not wait for visible dieback in the canopy, as there is a significant delay between disruption to the vascular tissues and expression of symptoms in the canopy. Delaying Emerald Ash Borer treatment could result in canopy dieback or tree loss.

Spring

Injections can be made in the spring during the growing season, about 30 days prior to expected adult emergence. Uptake of formulation is fastest when trees are actively transpiring, after they have developed a full canopy. Emerald Ash Borer treatment in the spring will prevent the adult beetles from feeding and laying eggs in the tree.

Summer

Injections in the summer will kill the larval stage of EAB feeding under the bark. Make summer treatment applications in the morning when temperatures are moderate. If soil is dry, water trees prior to treatment.

Fall

Injections in the fall (before or after leaves color) can protect the tree now and the following season. The larvae are feeding now so they are doing a lot of damage to the vascular tissue. Proactive treatment is important since EAB larvae damage won’t exhibit symptoms until next year. The treatment will remain in the tree tissue and protect the tree through the next season.

Trees need to be closely monitored for symptoms of EAB as infestation builds in your area. In general, applications are not made more than once a year. Specific insecticide formulations for EAB may provide 2 years of activity.

What to Expect After Treatment

Trees will recover from infestation and will be protected from Emerald Ash Borer.
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Red Gum Lerp Psyllid

The red gum lerp psyllid (RGLP) (Glycaspis brimblecombei) is a foliar pest on red gum eucalyptus trees (Eucalyptus camaldulensis).  Like Eucalyptus trees, the RGLP is native to Australia. RGLP is a plant-juice sucking homopteran in the family Psyllidae. The nymphs form a protective covering of crystallized honeydew called a lerp, which protects the insects from both predators and insecticidal foliar sprays.  Excess honey dew results in the growth of sooty mold.  The RGLP is responsible for extensive defoliation of Red Gum Eucalyptus trees.  Heavy infestations result in reduced tree health, decline and ultimately, tree loss.

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image

Symptoms

Trees infested by Red Gum Lerp Psyllid have leaves covered in "lerps," blackened by sooty mold and drop leaves. Honeydew from eucalyptus trees may also be an indication of RGLP infestation.


photo A taken by William M. Ciesla, Forest Health Management International, Bugwood.org
Photo B taken by Jack Kelly Clark, University of California Statewide IPM Program

Treatment

Arborjet recommends a trunk injection using IMA-jet (imidacloprid), a systemic insecticide for the control of RGLP. Imidacloprid is a nicotinoid, a synthetic chemistry structurally similar to nicotine sulfate found in tobacco, which disrupts the central nervous system in insects. Applications may be made using the Arborjet TREE I.V. or the QUIK-jet micro-injector.

When to Treat

Generally, the best seasons for injection are fall and spring, as uptake occurs when trees are transpiring. The environmental conditions that favor uptake are adequate soil moisture and relatively high humidity. Soil temperature should be above 40 degrees F for trunk injection. Hot weather or dry soil conditions will result in a reduced rate of uptake, so trees should be watered if applications are made when soil is extremely dry. If treating trees in the summer, inject in the morning for the quickest uptake. Tree health will affect treatment efficacy, so assess tree health prior to treating. For example, a declining tree (>50% canopy dieback) is a poor candidate for treatment. In Eucalyptus trees, treat when RGLP is first observed in trees for best results.

What to Expect After Treatment

IMA-jet is an effective treatment option for RGLP infestation. Trees will re-foliate, proportional to the level of infestation at the time of treatment. Best outcomes are seen when applications are made early to trees. Trees that have been repeatedly defoliated by RGLP without treatment will have a poorer prognosis for recovery.

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Current Pest Warnings

Emerald Ash Borer

Threatening over 20 states in the U.S. Learn More

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